>Detslor.dk>Programmering>HTML>HTML tags

HTML tags




Abbreviation
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<ABBREV> text </ABBREV>

The abbreviation tag defines an abbreviation. It is typically displayed just like normal text, but is used by automatic indexers.


Acronym
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<ACRONYM> text </ACRONYM>

The acronym tag defines an acronym. It is typically displayed just like normal text, but is used by automatic indexers.


Address


<ADDRESS> text </ADDRESS>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <ADDRESS NOWRAP> text </ADDRESS>

The address tag defines text that gives an address or other contact information. It is typically displayed in italics, slightly indented, and is used by automatic indexers. The NOWRAP attribute stops the browser from wrapping except where <BR>'s are.


Anchor


<A NAME="anchor-name">
<A HREF=
"#anchor-name">link-text</A>
<A HREF="
url">link-text</A>
<A HREF="
url#anchor-name">link-text </A>


The anchor tag defines either a link or an anchor in a document. The anchor tag must contain either a NAME attribute or an HREF attribute, or both.
There are three optional attributes that are no longer commonly used with anchor, though they are used with LINK:

REF="relationship"
defines the relationship between this document and the HREF URL.

REV="relationship"
defines the relationship between the HREF URL and this document. (REV stands for reverse, because it is the reverse of the REF attribute.)

TITLE="document-name"
No longer commonly used, indicates the TITLE of the document pointed to by the HREF URL.

Both Netscape and Explorer support the TARGET attribute as an extension. It is often used with frames, but frames are not required to use it.

(Netscape Extension) (Microsoft Extension 3.0) TARGET="target window name"
Will load the document pointed to by HREF into the window specified by "target window name"
The following are the predefined target names:
_blank
Will cause the link to be loaded into a new blank window.
_self
Will cause the link to be loaded into the same window the link was in.
_parent
Will cause the link to be loaded into the parent of this document.
_top
Will cause the link to be loaded into the full body of this window.


(HTML 3.0 Only) Anchors with a SHAPE attribute may appear inside FIG tags. These anchors are described with the FIG tag.

(HTML 3.0 Only) An anchor name can also be defined with the ID attribute in many other markup tags. For example, the source:

<P ID=jumppoint>This is a paragraph with a jump point defined in it.

defines an anchor called jumppoint at the start of the paragraph. Almost every element, including lists, list items, images, and headers, can have an ID attribute.


Area
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<AREA SHAPE="shape" ALT="text" CO-ORDS="co-ords" HREF="URL">

<AREA SHAPE="shape" ALT="text" CO-ORDS="co-ords" HREF="URL" TARGET="target window name>

<AREA SHAPE="shape" ALT="text" CO-ORDS="co-ords" NOHREF>

The area tag, valid only within a MAP, defines areas that act as hotspots within an image. Typically a map will have multiple AREA tags; if the user clicks at a location that is inside two or more defined areas the one that appears first within the MAP entry is used.

The NOHREF attribute means that clicks here will not cause a link to be followed.

The SHAPE attribute can be one of RECT, CIRCLE, POLY or DEFAULT. CO-ORDS gives the co-ordinates, in pixels, measured from the upper left corner of the image, of the defining points for the shape. For RECT these are left, top, right, bottom. For CIRCLE they are Xcentre, Ycentre, radius. For POLY they are x1, y1, x2, y2, ... xn, yn. The DEFAULT area, maps all areas not already specified in another AREA tag and no co-ordinates are required.

(Netscape Extension) (Microsoft Extension 3.0) If Target is specified then the document pointed to by HREF will be loaded into the window specified by "target window name". The following are the predefined target names:

_blank
Will cause the link to be loaded into a new blank window.
_self
Will cause the link to be loaded into the same window the link was in.
_parent
Will cause the link to be loaded into the parent of this document.
_top
Will cause the link to be loaded into the full body of this window.

Author
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<AUTHOR> text </AUTHOR>
<AU>
text </AU>

The author tag defines text that names the author of a document. It is typically displayed just like normal text, but is used by automatic indexers.


Background Sound
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:2.0+


<BGSOUND SRC="URL">

<BGSOUND SRC="URL"LOOP=n>

The background sound tag identifies a .wav, .au, or.mid resource that will be played when the page is opened. The optional LOOP attribute will cause the resource to be played n times. LOOP="INFINITE" will cause the resource to be played continuously as long as the page is open.


Banner
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<BANNER attributes </BANNER>

The banner element defines an image or block of text that does not scroll with the document and is displayed at the top of the screen as the user scrolls through the document. Details of the attributes are not yet available -- use a BANNER attribute in the LINK section of the HEAD.


Base

<BASE HREF="base address">
(Netscape Extension) (Microsoft Extension 3.0) <BASE TARGET="default target">

The base tag, which is valid only in the HEAD section, defines the base address of an HTML document, which is used to determine the full address of relative URL's that appear in the document. The typical use for this is to move an HTML document to another site without moving all the images and related documents with it: the base URL can be set to the directory where those images and documents remain. The "default target" will become the target for all links unless specified explicitly. The following are the predefined target names:

_blank
Will cause the link to be loaded into a new blank window.
_self
Will cause the link to be loaded into the same window the link was in.
_parent
Will cause the link to be loaded into the parent of this document.
_top
Will cause the link to be loaded into the full body of this window.

Base Font
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<BASEFONT SIZE=number>

The base font tag defines the base that relative FONT changes are based on. (Default is 3.)


Big Text
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<BIG> text </BIG>

The big text tag defines text that should be displayed in a larger font than usual.


Blink
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:No Support


<BLINK> text </BLINK>

The blink tag highlights the text by having it blink on and off.


Block Quote


<BLOCKQUOTE> text </BLOCKQUOTE>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <BQ> text </BQ>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <BQ CLEAR = attributes> text </BQ>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <BQ NOWRAP> text </BQ>

The block quote tag defines text that is quoted from elsewhere. Many browsers (including Netscape) display it in an indented block surrounded by blank lines. Other suggestions from the HTML 2.0 spec include displaying the text in italics or starting each line with the Usenet standard quote indicator, >. In HTML 3.0, the CLEAR attribute is used to position a quote after a graphic: it can be LEFT, RIGHT, or ALL and specifies which margin should be clear. The NOWRAP attribute stops the browser from wrapping except at a BR tag.


Body

<BODY> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY BACKGROUND="URL"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY BGCOLOR="#rrggbb"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY BGCOLOR="colorname"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY TEXT="#rrggbb"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY TEXT="colorname"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY LINK="#rrggbb"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY LINK="colorname"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY ALINK="#rrggbb"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY ALINK="colorname"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY VLINK="#rrggbb"> document-body </BODY>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BODY VLINK="colorname"> document-body </BODY>
(Microsoft Extension) <BODY LEFTMARGIN=
margin> document-body </BODY>
(Microsoft Extension) <BODY TOPMARGIN=
margin> document-body </BODY>
(Microsoft Extension) <BODY BGPROPERTieS="FIXED">
document-body</BODY>

The body tag introduces the body of the document. It should appear after the head section and occupy the remainder of the document.

(HTML 3.2 Only) The BACKGROUND attribute specifies an image file to use as the background for the page.

(HTML 3.2 Only) The BGCOLOR, TEXT, LINK, ALINK, and VLINK attributes specify the colours to be used for the background, text, links, active links, and visited links respectively. (An link is active for the moment the user clicks on it, and changes colour to confirm it has been clicked.) rrggbb is a six digit hexadecimal number with the first two digits specifying the red value, the middle two the green value, and the last two the blue value. Some sample colour values:

red
FF0000
green
00FF00
blue
0000FF
black
000000
white
FFFFFF
grey
888888
yellow
FFFF00
cyan
00FFFF



(HTML 3.2 Only) Colour names can be used wherever colours can be used: in the BGCOLOR, TEXT, LINK, ALINK,and VLINK attributes. Valid colours are: Aqua, Black, Blue, Fuchsia, Gray, Green, Lime, Maroon, Navy, Olive, Purple, Red, Silver, Teal,Yellow, and White.

(Microsoft Extension) The LEFTMARGIN and TOPMARGIN attributes set the margin at the left and top of the document, in pixels.

(Microsoft Extension) The BGPROPERTIES attribute causes the background image (set with the BACKGROUND attribute) to remain fixed as the document scrolls: a watermark effect.


Bold


<B> text </B>

The bold tag defines text that should be shown in boldface. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag.


Caption
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<CAPTION> text </CAPTION>
(Netscape Extension)
(HTML 3.2 Only) <CAPTION ALIGN=alignment> text </CAPTION>
(Microsoft Extension) <CAPTION ALIGN=
alignment> text </CAPTION>
(Microsoft Extension) <CAPTION VALIGN=
vertical-alignment> text </CAPTION>

The caption tag defines the caption of a figure or table. It is valid only within FIG or TABLE tags.

(Netscape Extension) (HTML 3.2 Only) The ALIGN attribute arranges for the caption to be at the TOP or BOTTOM of the table or figure.

(Microsoft Extension) The ALIGN attribute sets the alignment of the caption within the table or figure border. It can be LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER.

(Microsoft Extension) The VALIGN attribute arranges for the caption to be at the TOP or BOTTOM of the table or figure.


Center
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<CENTER> text</CENTER>

The center tag defines text that should be centered.


Citation


<CITE> text </CITE>

The citation tag defines text that cites a book or other work -- most browsers will display it in italics. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag.


Code


<CODE> text </CODE>

The code tag defines text that should be shown in a fixed width font. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag. Many browsers use the same font for the KBD, SAMP, TT and CODE tags. For many lines of fixed width text, with the line breaks and other whitespace specified by the page author, use the PRE tag.


Comment


<!-- comment text -->

The comment tag includes the actual comment text. Any instance of --> ends the comment. Whitespace may be included between the -- and the > but not between the <! and the first --.


Credit
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<CREDIT> text </CREDIT>

The credit tag defines text that credits a figure or quote. It is valid only within FIG or BQ tags.


Definition
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:2.0+


<DFN> text </DFN>

The definition tag defines text that defines a term -- many browsers will display it in italics, though others will ignore it. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag.


Definition List


<DL> list entries </DL>
<DL COMPACT>
list entries </DL>
<DT>
term
<DD> definition

The definition list tag introduces a definition list or glossary, which is made up of term (DT) and definition (DD) items. The </DT> and </DD> tags are optional. Typically the definitions are indented under each term, with no blank lines around them. If COMPACT was specified (and the terms are short) the terms and definitions are on the same line. Do not use multiple DD elements for the same DT -- instead use BR within the DD.

(HTML 3.0 Only) A list heading (LH) may be included before the first definition term.


Deleted Text
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<DEL> list entries </DEL>

The deleted text tag marks text that has been deleted, for example in a group authoring situation or a legal document.


Directory List


<DIR> list entries </DIR>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <DIR COMPACT> list entries </DIR>

The directory list tag introduces a directory list, which is made up of List Item (LI) tags and does not include bullets or numbers before them. The items should be short so that they can be arranged into columns. For a bulleted list use UL. For a numbered list use OL. For a list without bullets or numbers that is not arranged into columns use MENU. The COMPACT attribute instructs the browser to reduce the space occupied by the list.

In HTML 3.0, the same effect can be achieved with <UL PLAIN WRAP=HORIZ>. The DIR tag will probably be obsolete some day, so use UL.


Division
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:No Support

<DIV ALIGN=align>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <DIV CLASS=class>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <DIV CLASS=class NOWRAP>
<DIV =
clear>
<DIV =
lang>
LANG=iso
Indicates the ISO standard language. Enter the standard abbreviation to indicate the language of the element.

The division tag is used to divide a document up into different sections, such as chapters, sections, abstract, and appendix. The CLASS attribute specifies what section this is. The ALIGN attribute can be one of LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER. The NOWRAP attribute stops the browser from wrapping except where <BR>'s are included in the document.


Embed
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<EMBED attributes> alternate HTML </EMBED>

The embed element is used to embed a plugin into a document. The OBJECT tag can also be used to embed objects. The attributes of EMBED are:

SRC="URL"
"URL" identifies the location of the object to be embedded.

 
HEIGHT=number
This specifies the height of the object, according to the UNITS attribute.

WIDTH=number
This specifies the width of the object, according to the UNITS attribute.

UNITS=units
Here units is one of pixels, meaning the width and height are measured in pixels, or en, meaning the width and height are measured in en spaces.

NAME=text
This indicates the name used by other objects or elements to refer to this object.

"OPTIONAL PARAMETER"=value
This specifies any parameters that are specific to the object. Put the name of the parameter in place of "OPTIONAL PARAMETER".

PALETTE=#rgb|#rgb
Sets the foreground or background color. The first colour is the foreground.

Emphasized


<EM> text </EM>

The emphasized tag defines text that should be emphasized -- most browsers will display it in italics. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag.


Escape Sequences


&lt
&gt
&amp
&quot
(HTML 3.2 Only) &nbsp
(HTML 3.2 Only) &reg
(HTML 3.2 Only) &copy
(HTML 3.0 Only) &ensp
(HTML 3.0 Only) &emsp
(HTML 3.0 Only) &endash
(HTML 3.0 Only) &emdash

These escape sequences are used to enter characters such as <, >, &, and " into HTML documents. The mnemonics of the original four sequences from HTML 2.0 stand for Less Than, Greater Than, AMPersand, and double QUOTe. HTML 3.2 adds NonBreaking SPace, REGistered trademark and COPYright. HTML 3.0 adds EN SPace, EM SPace, EN DASH, and EM DASH. There are a number of escape sequences available for accented characters; a full list is provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C.) Use a space or semi-colon(;) after the mnemonic to indicate the end of the escape sequence; using a space will insert a space between the special character and the next part of the text, while using a semi-colon will not.

Example:
&lt;BR> will display as <BR>

Example


<XMP> text </XMP>

The example tag introduces example text. Because of the way this tag handles embedded tags, it should no longer be used. PRE or SAMP are better choices.


Figure
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<FIG attributes> figure-content </FIG>

See the OBJECT and MAP tags for an alternate to this tag.

The figure element is an improvement over the inline image used in HTML 2.0 for a variety of reasons. The text used to describe the figure for non-graphical browsers can contain markup tags, and a separate credit and caption will be displayed by both graphical and non-graphical browsers. It also makes imagemaps much easier to code and independent of the server. At the moment it isn't clear whether the built-in image maps of FIG or the client-side image maps of IMG with a USEMAP attribute will emerge as the long term alternative to server side image maps. The attributes of FIG are:

SRC="URL"
"URL" identifies the image source, typically a GIF or JPEG file.

ALIGN="alignment"
"alignment" should be one of TOP, MIDDLE, or BOTTOM. This causes the top, middle, or bottom of the image to be aligned with the text on the line containing the IMG tag.
(Netscape Extension) "alignment" should be one of LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, TEXTTOP, MIDDLE, ABSMIDDLE, BASELINE, BOTTOM, or ABSBOTTOM.

HEIGHT=number
This specifies the height of the image, according to the UNITS attribute.

WIDTH=number
This specifies the width of the image, according to the UNITS attribute.

UNITS=units
Here units is one of pixels, meaning the width and height are measured in pixels, or en, meaning the width and height are measured in en spaces. These units are not used for the shape co-ordinates of any anchor tags in the figure.

NOFLOW
Stops text from flowing around the figure.

IMAGEMAP="URL"
Points to a script that handles clicks and drags.

The figure-content contains the following optional elements, in this order:

<OVERLAY SRC="url">
<
CAPTION>caption-text</CAPTION>
Figure description text, including markup (headers, lists, etc.) to substitute for the image.
<A SHAPE="shape">link-text</A>
<CREDIT>credit-text</CREDIT>

The SHAPE attribute is one of:

This implements a figure with a built-in imagemap, freeing the browser from asking the server how to respond to a click. If the user clicks within the area defined by the anchor's SHAPE attribute, the link is followed. (If the click is outside all the defined shapes, the link identified as default is followed.) The numerical values provided are interpreted as pixels if they are integers, or as fractions of the screen width if they are not integers, with the origin at the top left corner of the figure. There is an intelligent mechanism for dealing with a click in an area that is in more than one shape anchor. If the browser does not display graphics, the figure description text is displayed, and some of it is highlighted as link text.


Font
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<FONT SIZE=number>
<FONT COLOR="#RRGGBB">
<FONT COLOR="colorname">
(Microsoft Extension)(Netscape Extension) <FONT FACE="facename1, facename2...">

The font tag defines text with a smaller or larger font than usual. The normal font size corresponds to 3; smaller values of number will produce a smaller font, and larger values of number will produce a larger font. If number has a sign (for example +1), the font will be changed relative to the BASEFONT.

The COLOR attribute allows you to change the colour of the text. rrggbb is a six digit hexadecimal number with the first two digits specifying the red value, the middle two the green value, and the last two the blue value. Some sample colour values:

red
FF0000
green
00FF00
blue
0000FF
black
000000
white
FFFFFF
grey
888888
yellow
FFFF00
cyan
00FFFF


Colour names can also be used in the COLOR attribute. Valid colours are: Aqua, Black, Blue, Fuchsia, Gray, Green, Lime, Maroon, Navy, Olive, Purple, Red, Silver, Teal,Yellow, and White.

(Microsoft Extension)(Netscape Extension) The FACE attribute specifies the face to be used, such as Arial or Courier. If multiple names are specified, the first one listed that is installed on the client machine is used.


Footnote
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<FN ID=anchor-name> text </FN>

The footnote tag defines a footnote, ideally displayed in a pop-up window. The text that refers to this footnote does so with a standard anchor tag using anchor-name.


Form


<FORM ACTION=action base> form tags </FORM>
<FORM METHOD=
method> form tags </FORM>
<FORM ENCTYPE=
media type> form tags </FORM>
(Netscape Extension) (Microsoft Extension 3.0) <FORM ACTION=action base TARGET="target window name"> form tags </FORM>
(HTML 3.0 Only)<FORM SCRIPT=
URL> form tags </FORM>

The form tag introduces a form, which is made up of INPUT elements, described in the sections that follow. A form may be inside structural HTML tags and may also contain structural tags. Using tables and other elements a form can take on various shapes and looks.

The ACTION attribute defaults to the document's base address.

The METHOD attribute can be GET or POST. GET specifies a query form, used to get data from a server. POST specifies a form that gives information to the server and perhaps causes a database to be updated or a message to be sent.

The SCRIPT attribute points to a script to be run. The browser must be able to run the type of script that is specified.

The default media type is 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded', which specifies how the browser puts the user responses on the form together to form a response URL that is then submitted to the server. For more on the CGI compliant scripts that process the form, check the CGI documentation.

(Netscape Extension) (Microsoft Extension 3.0) If Target is specified then the output document will be loaded into the window specified by "target window name". The following are the predefined target names:

_blank
Will cause the link to be loaded into a new blank window.
_self
Will cause the link to be loaded into the same window the link was in.
_parent
Will cause the link to be loaded into the parent of this document.
_top
Will cause the link to be loaded into the full body of this window.

Form Input Check Box


<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME=name VALUE=value>
<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME=
name VALUE=value CHECKED>

The checkbox type input tag specifies a boolean choice within the form that contains it. If more than one checkbox appears in the form with the same name the user can select none, one or several of the choices. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. The VALUE attribute specifies the value that is returned if the box is checked. If the CHECKED attribute is specified, the box is initially selected.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Input File
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<INPUT TYPE=FILE NAME=name ACCEPT=mime type list>

The file type input tag allows the user to attach one or more files to the form for submission. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. The ACCEPT attribute is a list of mime types that will be accepted. (e.g. "image/*" or "image/gif, image/jpeg").

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Input Hidden


<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME=name VALUE=value>

The hidden type input tag specifies a hard coded name-value pair within the form. This field is not displayed to the user. Both NAME and VALUE are required attributes.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Input Image


<INPUT TYPE=IMAGE NAME=name SRC="URL">
(HTML 3.2 Only) <INPUT TYPE=IMAGE NAME=name SRC="URL" ALIGN="alignment">

The image type input tag specifies an image to be presented to the user. As soon as the user clicks on the image, the form is submitted with the selected x y coordinates of the spot on the image and the data for the other form fields. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. The SRC and ALIGN attributes are the same as in the Inline Image tag.

(HTML 3.2 Only) The ALIGN attribute is used for image alignment and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification added two new attributes: DISABLED, and ERROR. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field.


Form Input Password


<INPUT TYPE=PASSWORD NAME=name>
<INPUT TYPE=PASSWORD NAME=
name MAXLENGTH=length>
<INPUT TYPE=PASSWORD NAME=
name SIZE=size>
<INPUT TYPE=PASSWORD NAME=
name VALUE=value>

The password type input tag specifies a single line text entry field within the form that contains it. The value entered by the user will be obscured as it is entered. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. The MAXLENGTH attribute specifies the number of characters that can be entered into this field. If MAXLENGTH is not specified then there is no limit on the number of characters entered. If MAXLENGTH is longer than SIZE then the text field will scroll appropriately. The SIZE attribute specifies the amount of display space this field should take up. The default for SIZE will vary by browser. The VALUE attribute specifies the initial value of the field.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT..


Form Input Radio Button


<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME=name VALUE=value>
<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME=
name VALUE=value CHECKED>

The radio button type input tag allows a choice among a number of options. Normally more than one radio button will appear in the form with the same name. The user can then select only one of the of the choices. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. If one of the choices has the CHECKED attribute it will initially be selected. If none of the choices has the CHECKED attribute then the first one defaults as initially selected. The VALUE attribute specifies the value that is returned if the box is checked.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Input Range
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<INPUT TYPE=RANGE NAME=name MIN=min MAX=max>
<INPUT TYPE=RANGE NAME=
name MIN=min> MAX=max VALUE=value>

The range type input tag allows the user to enter an number restricted to a set range. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. The MIN and MAX attributes specify the minimum and maximum values that can be entered. If either MIN or MAX is a real number then the user can enter real numbers, otherwise only integers can be entered. The VALUE attribute specifies an initial value and should be in the range specified.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Input Reset


<INPUT TYPE=RESET>

The reset type input tag specifies a button. When the user clicks the button, all the fields in the form are reset to their initial values.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Input Scribble
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<INPUT TYPE=SCRIBBLE NAME=name SRC=URL VALUE=text>

The scribble type input tag allows the user draw on a predefined image. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. The SRC attribute specifies the URL of the image. The VALUE attribute specifies a text string that is used as an alternate if images or scribbling are not supported by the browser.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Input Submit


<INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT>
<INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT NAME=
name>
<INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT VALUE=
value>

The submit type input tag specifies a button. When the user clicks the button, the form is submitted. The NAME attribute is used to identify the data for the field. If no NAME attribute is given then this element does not form part of the submitted response. The VALUE attribute specifies the label for the button.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Input Text


<INPUT TYPE=TEXT NAME=name>
<INPUT TYPE=TEXT NAME=
name MAXLENGTH=length>
<INPUT TYPE=TEXT NAME=
name SIZE=size>
<INPUT TYPE=TEXT NAME=
name VALUE=value>

The text type input tag specifies a single line text entry field within the form that contains it. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. The MAXLENGTH attribute specifies the number of characters that can be entered into this field. If MAXLENGTH is not specified then there is no limit on the number of characters entered. If MAXLENGTH is longer than SIZE then the text field will scroll appropriately. The SIZE attribute specifies the amount of display space this field should take up. The default for SIZE will vary by browser. The VALUE attribute specifies the initial value of the field.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Select


<SELECT NAME=name> option entries </SELECT>
<SELECT NAME=
name MULTIPLE> option entries </SELECT>
<SELECT NAME=
name SIZE=size> option entries </SELECT>
(HTML 3.0 Only)<SELECT NAME=
name SRC=URL WIDTH=width HEIGHT=height UNITS=units> option entries </SELECT>
<OPTION>
content
<OPTION SELECTED>
content
<OPTION VALUE=
value> content
(HTML 3.0 Only)<OPTION SHAPE=
shape>

The select tag specifies a multiple line selection box field within the form that contains it. The user can select one or more lines if the attribute MULTIPLE is specified. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. The SIZE attribute specifies the number of lines of selections that are to be displayed.
The SELECTED attribute of the option tag specifies that the option is to be initially selected. The VALUE attribute specifies the value to be returned if this option is selected. If the VALUE attribute is not specified the content of the option is used.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The select tag's SRC, WIDTH, HEIGHT, and UNITS attributes and the option tag's SHAPE attribute define an image map. These attributes are the same as the ones described in the Figure tag.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Form Text Area


<TEXTAREA NAME=name COLS=# columns ROWS=# rows> content </TEXTAREA>
<TEXTAREA NAME=
name COLS=# columns ROWS=# rows WRAP=type> content </TEXTAREA>

 

The text area tag specifies a multiple line text area field within the form that contains it. The NAME attribute is a required field and is used to identify the data for the field. The COLS attribute specifies the width in characters of the text area. The ROWS attribute specifies the number of lines the text area contains. The content is used as an initial value for the field. The field can be scrolled beyond the COLS and ROWS size to allow for larger amounts of text to be entered. The wrap attribute can have values of OFF, SOFT and HARD.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The 3.0 specification adds three new attributes: DISABLED, ERROR, and ALIGN. The DISABLED attribute shows the field but will not allow the user to modify it. The ERROR attribute is used to supply an error message for the field. The ALIGN attribute is used to position the field and can be one of TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE, LEFT or RIGHT.


Frame
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<FRAME attributes>

The frame tag appears inside the FRAMESET tag and specifies one frame in the frameset. The attributes are:

SRC="URL"
The URL of the source document to be displayed in this frame. If the frame does not specify a source it will be displayed as blank space.
NAME="window name"
Here "window name" is the name associated with this frame. It can be used by the TARGET attribute in the A, BASE, AREA, and FORM tags to target this frame.

MARGINWIDTH=number
Here number is the left and right margin thickness in pixels.

MARGINHEIGHT=number
Here number is the top and bottom margin thickness in pixels.

SCROLLING=type
Here type is one of yes, no or auto. It specifies if the frame is to have a scroll bar: auto (the default) means the browser will decide.

NORESIZE
Stops the user from resizing the frame..

(Microsoft Extension 3.0) FRAMEBORDER=yes|no
Specifies if the border should be displayed.

(Microsoft Extension 3.0) FRAMESPACING=number
Here number is the spacing between frames in pixels.

(Microsoft Extension 3.0)(Netscape Extension) ALIGN = "alignment" (one of LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, TEXTTOP, MIDDLE, ABSMIDDLE, BASELINE, BOTTOM, or ABSBOTTOM.)


Frame - Floating
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:3.0+

<IFRAME attributes> frame data <IFRAME>

The IFRAME tag defines a floating frame, and the end tag is required. The attributes for IFRAME are as follows:

ALIGN=left|center|top|bottom
This sets the alignment of the frame or of the surrounding text. The default is LEFT.
 
FRAMEBORDER=1|0

Renders a 3-D edge border around the frame. 1 (default) inserts a border. 0 displays no border.

HEIGHT=height

Controls the height (in pixels) of the floating frame.

MARGINHEIGHT=height

Controls the margin height for the frame, in pixels.

MARGINWIDTH=width

Controls the margin width for the frame, in pixels.

NAME=name

Provides a target name for the frame.

SCROLLING=yes|no

Creates a scrolling frame.

SRC=address
Displays the source file for the frame.
 
WIDTH=width

Controls the width of the floating frame, in pixels.


Frame Set
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<FRAMESET attributes> frame tags </FRAMESET>

The FRAMESET tag replaces the BODY tag in a document and is used to split the documents window into a set of smaller frames. FRAMESET tags can be nested to create more complicated frame layouts. NOFRAME tags can also be placed in a frameset. The attributes are:

ROWS="row heights"
Here "row heights" specifies a list of values for the rows, each one can be specified as a percentage, a pixel value or as "*". The frameset will be split vertically into frames based on these values. Rows with "*"'s in them will have any remaining space split between them.
COLS="column widths"
Here "column widths" specifies a list of values for the columns. The width of each column can be specified as a percentage, a pixel value or as "*". The frameset will be split into frames based on these values. Columns with a width of "*" will split the space that is not assigned to other columns.

Head

<HEAD> head-section </HEAD>

The head tag introduces text that describes an HTML document. Most documents have only a TITLE tag in the head section.


Heading 1


<H1> text </H1>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <H1 ALIGN=alignment > text </H1>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H1 SRC=
"URL" > text </H1>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H1 DINGBAT=
"entity-name" > text </H1>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H1 NOWRAP>
text </H1>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H1 CLEAR=
clear > text </H1>

The heading 1 tag defines a level 1 heading. It is typically shown in a very large bold font with several blank lines around it, and is used by automatic indexers to describe a page.

The alignment attribute can be LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER -- it defines the placement of the header on the screen. The SRC attribute identifies a graphic image to be embedded before the header text, while the DINGBAT attribute identifies an iconic entity to be embedded there. The clear attribute is used to position a header after a graphic: it can be LEFT, RIGHT, or ALL and specifies which margin should be clear. The NOWRAP attribute prevents the browser from breaking long header lines; use a BR tag to break those lines yourself.


Heading 2


<H2> text </H2>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <H2 ALIGN=alignment > text </H2>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H2 SRC=
"URL" > text </H2>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H2 DINGBAT=
"entity-name" > text </H2>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H2 NOWRAP>
text </H2>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H2 CLEAR=
clear > text </H2>

The heading 2 tag defines a level 2 heading. It is typically shown in a large bold font with several blank lines around it.

The alignment attribute can be LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER -- it defines the placement of the header on the screen. The SRC attribute identifies a graphic image to be embedded before the header text, while the DINGBAT attribute identifies an iconic entity to be embedded there. The clear attribute is used to position a header after a graphic: it can be LEFT, RIGHT, or ALL and specifies which margin should be clear. The NOWRAP attribute prevents the browser from breaking long header lines; use a BR tag to break those lines yourself.


Heading 3


<H3> text </H3>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <H3 ALIGN=alignment > text </H3>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H3 SRC=
"URL" > text </H3>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H3 DINGBAT=
"entity-name" > text </H3>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H3 NOWRAP>
text </H3>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H3 CLEAR=
clear > text </H3>

The heading 3 tag defines a level 3 heading. It is typically shown in a large italic font, slightly indented, with blank lines around it.

The alignment attribute can be LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER -- it defines the placement of the header on the screen. The SRC attribute identifies a graphic image to be embedded before the header text, while the DINGBAT attribute identifies an iconic entity to be embedded there. The clear attribute is used to position a header after a graphic: it can be LEFT, RIGHT, or ALL and specifies which margin should be clear. The NOWRAP attribute prevents the browser from breaking long header lines; use a BR tag to break those lines yourself.


Heading 4


<H4> text </H4>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <H4 ALIGN=alignment > text </H4>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H4 SRC=
"URL" > text </H4>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H4 DINGBAT=
"entity-name" > text </H4>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H4 NOWRAP>
text </H4>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H4 CLEAR=
clear > text </H4>

The heading 4 tag defines a level 4 heading. It is typically shown in a bold font, indented more than an level 3 heading, with blank lines around it.

The alignment attribute can be LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER -- it defines the placement of the header on the screen. The SRC attribute identifies a graphic image to be embedded before the header text, while the DINGBAT attribute identifies an iconic entity to be embedded there. The clear attribute is used to position a header after a graphic: it can be LEFT, RIGHT, or ALL and specifies which margin should be clear. The NOWRAP attribute prevents the browser from breaking long header lines; use a BR tag to break those lines yourself.


Heading 5


<H5> text </H5>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <H5 ALIGN=alignment > text </H5>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H5 SRC=
"URL" > text </H5>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H5 DINGBAT=
"entity-name" > text </H5>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H5 NOWRAP>
text </H5>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H5 CLEAR=
clear > text </H5>

The heading 5 tag defines a level 5 heading. It is typically shown in an italic font, indented the same as a level 4 heading, with a blank line above it.

The alignment attribute can be LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER -- it defines the placement of the header on the screen. The SRC attribute identifies a graphic image to be embedded before the header text, while the DINGBAT attribute identifies an iconic entity to be embedded there. The clear attribute is used to position a header after a graphic: it can be LEFT, RIGHT, or ALL and specifies which margin should be clear. The NOWRAP attribute prevents the browser from breaking long header lines; use a BR tag to break those lines yourself.


Heading 6


<H6> text </H6>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <H6 ALIGN=alignment > text </H6>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H6 SRC=
"URL" > text </H6>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H6 DINGBAT=
"entity-name" > text </H6>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H6 NOWRAP>
text </H6>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <H6 CLEAR=
clear > text </H6>

The heading 6 tag defines a level 6 heading. It is typically shown in a normal font, indented more than a level 5 heading, with a blank line above it.

The alignment attribute can be LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER -- it defines the placement of the header on the screen. The SRC attribute identifies a graphic image to be embedded before the header text, while the DINGBAT attribute identifies an iconic entity to be embedded there. The clear attribute is used to position a header after a graphic: it can be LEFT, RIGHT, or ALL and specifies which margin should be clear. The NOWRAP attribute prevents the browser from breaking long header lines; use a BR tag to break those lines yourself.


Horizontal Rule


<HR>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <HR SRC= "URL">
(HTML 3.2 Only) <HR SIZE= number>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <HR WIDTH= number%>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <HR ALIGN= alignment%>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <HR NOSHADE>
(Microsoft Extension 3.0) <HR COLOR="colorname">

The horizontal rule tag causes a horizontal line to be drawn across the screen. There is no </HR> tag.

The attributes allow you to specify the thickness of the line (in pixels) with the SIZE attribute. The WIDTH attribute governs what percentage of the screen width is occupied by the rule. The ALIGN attribute aligns a rule that is smaller than the screen: alignment can be LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER. The NOSHADE attribute prevents the browser from using any shading or three dimensional effects.

(Microsoft Extension 3.0) The COLOR attribute allows you to change the colour of the text. rrggbb is a six digit hexadecimal number with the first two digits specifying the red value, the middle two the green value, and the last two the blue value. Some sample colour values:

red
FF0000
green
00FF00
blue
0000FF
black
000000
white
FFFFFF
grey
888888
yellow
FFFF00
cyan
00FFFF

Colour names can also be used in the COLOR attribute. Valid colours are: Aqua, Black, Blue, Fuchsia, Gray, Green, Lime, Maroon, Navy, Olive, Purple, Red, Silver, Teal,Yellow, and White

(HTML 3.0 Only) The SRC attribute specifies an image file to be used for the rule.


Horizontal Tab
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<TAB INDENT=number>
<TAB TO=
tab id ALIGN=align>
<TAB DP=
character>

The horizontal tab tag is used to set or jump to a horizontal tab. The INDENT attribute specifies the amount in en spaces to set this indent to. The align attribute can be one of LEFT, RIGHT, CENTER, or DECIMAL and will position the following text to the tab accordingly. The dp sets the tab to the position that the next character is found The default character is ".".


HTML

<HTML> entire-document </HTML>

The HTML tag defines an HTML document. The <HTML> tag should be the first in the entire document, and the </HTML> tag should be the last.


Inline Image


<IMG attributes>

The inline image tag displays an image referred to by a URL. It must contain at least an SRC attribute. The attributes are:

ALIGN="alignment"
Here "alignment" should be one of TOP, MIDDLE, or BOTTOM. This causes the top, middle, or bottom of the image to be aligned with the text on the line containing the IMG tag.
(HTML 3.2 Only) "alignment" can also be LEFT or RIGHT, this moves the image to the left or right of the screen and allows text to flow around it.
(Netscape Extension) "alignment" should be one of LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, TEXTTOP, MIDDLE, ABSMIDDLE, BASELINE, BOTTOM, or ABSBOTTOM.
ALT="text"
Here "text" is the text to be displayed by a browser that does not display images, such as Lynx, or to be used when image display is suppressed.

(HTML 3.2 Only) BORDER=number
Here number is the border thickness in pixels. (Do not use BORDER=0 for images that are links.)

(Microsoft Extension) CONTROLS
If present, and an AVI resource is being played, displays controls under the resource.

(Microsoft Extension) DYNSRC="url"
Specifies an AVI resource to be played, or a VRML world. Always include a still image as well with the SRC attribute, for use by browsers that do not display inline video or VRML.

(HTML 3.2 Only) HEIGHT=number
This specifies the height of the image, according to the UNITS attribute.

(HTML 3.2 Only) HSPACE=number
Here number is the space, in pixels, to leave to the left and right of the image.

ISMAP="url"
This attribute indicates that this image is a server side image map.
 
(Microsoft Extension) LOOP=number
The optional LOOP attribute will cause the resource to be played number times. LOOP="INFINITE" will cause the resource to be played continuously as long as the page is open.

(Netscape Extension) LOWSRC="url"
Specifies an image to be displayed while the SRC image is being loaded. This alternate image should take much less time to download then the SRC image: it should be lower resolution, black and white, etc.
(Microsoft Extension) START="start option"
The START attribute specifies when the browser should start to play the resource specified with the DYNSRC attribute. START=FILEOPEN instructs the browser to play the resource only when the file is opened. START=MOUSEOVER instructs the browser to play the resource each time the user moves the mouse cursor over it. START=FILEOPEN,MOUSEOVER does both.

SRC="URL"
Here "URL" identifies the image source, typically a GIF or JPEG file.

(HTML 3.0 Only) UNITS=units
Here units is one of pixels, meaning the width and height are measured in pixels, or en, meaning the width and height are measured in en spaces.

(HTML 3.2 Only) USEMAP="url"
This attribute overrides the ISMAP attribute, if present, and if the browser supports client-side image maps. It uses the MAP element found at url to translate clicks.

(HTML 3.2 Only) WIDTH=number
This specifies the width of the image, according to the UNITS attribute.

(HTML 3.2 Only) VSPACE=number
Here number is the space, in pixels, to leave above and below the image.


Inserted Text
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<INS> text </INS>

The inserted text tag marks text that has been inserted, for example in a group authoring situation or a legal document.


Is Index

<ISINDEX>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <ISINDEX HREF=
URL>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <ISINDEX PROMPT=prompt>

The isindex tag, which is only valid in a HEAD section, declares that the current HTML document is a searchable index. The user will be prompted for keywords to search for. A new URL will be formed by taking the base address of the current document and adding a '?' character to it, followed by the keywords separated by '+' characters. The URL attribute overrides the base address. The prompt attribute changes the prompt from the default one supplied by the browser.


Italic


<I> text </I>

The italic tag defines text that should be shown in italics. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag.


Java Applet
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:No Support


<APPLET attributes> applet-content </APPLET>

The Java applet tag runs a Java applet referred to by a URL. applet-content consists of optional PARAM tags, ordinary text and markup to be displayed by browsers that cannot run Java applets, and a TEXTFLOW tag if no ordinary text and markup is included. The attributes of the APPLET tag are:

CODEBASE="base"
What "base" should be used when resolving source relative URLs.
CODE="code"
The URL of the applet to be run.
NAME="applet name"
The name of the applet.
ALIGN="alignment"
Here "alignment" should be one of LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, MIDDLE, or BOTTOM.
ALT="text"
Here "text" is the text to be displayed by a browser that does not support applets.
HEIGHT=number
The height of the applet display area in pixels.

WIDTH=number
The width of the applet display area in pixels.

HSPACE=number
The space, in pixels, to leave to the left and right of the applet display area.

 
VSPACE=number
The space, in pixels, to leave above and below the applet display area.

 
DOWNLOAD=number
This specifies the order in which they are downloaded.

HEIGHT=pixels
Specifies the height of the applet display area.

HSPACE=pixels
Specifies the horizontal space in which the applet displays.

NAME=name
Identifies an applet to other applets within the HTML page.

TITLE=text
Specifies an advisory title string.
 

Java Applet Textflow
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:No Support


<TEXTFLOW>

If an APPLET element has no ordinary text and markup in its applet-content, and contains only PARAM tags, comments, and whitespace, you should add a TEXTFLOW tag. This tag will be ignored by Web browsers but will keep SGML parsers happy.


Keyboard


<KBD> text </KBD>

The keyboard tag defines text that should be shown in a fixed width font. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag. Many browsers use the same font for the KBD, SAMP, TT and CODE tags. For many lines of fixed width text, with the line breaks and other whitespace specified by the page author, use the PRE tag.


Language
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<LANG> text </LANG>

The language tag is used to alter the language used for a block of text.


Link

<LINK REL=relationship HREF="URL">
<LINK REV=
relationship HREF="URL">
(HTML 3.2 Only) <LINK REV=relationship HREF="URL" TITLE="title">

The link tag appears within the HEAD section of a document. It has all the same attributes as the anchor tag. The main 3 attributes used are REL, REV and HREF. The REL attribute specifies the relationship between this document and the link. The REV attribute specifies a reverse relationship while the HREF attribute specifies the URL of the link. The following is a list of some of the current relationships. The TITLE attribute specifies an advisory title string.

Toolbar relationships

Browsers use this tag to build custom toolbars for the document.

REL=Home
Link points to home or top page in hierarchy.
REL=ToC
Link points to a table of contents.
REL=Index
Link points to an index for the current page.
REL=Glossary
Link points to a glossary.
REL=Copyright
Link points to a page with copyright information for the current page.
REL=Up
Link points to the pages parent in the hierarchy.
REL=Next
Link points to the next page in a series of pages.
REL=Previous
Link points to the previous page in a series of pages.
REL=Help
Link points to information that may further explain the page to the user.
REL=Bookmark
Link points to a particular location within a long document. The TITLE attribute is used to label the bookmark.

Other relationships

REL=Banner
This use achieves the effect that the BANNER tag will eventually provide.
REL=StyleSheet
Link points to a style sheet that will be used to render the current document.

Line Break


<BR>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BR CLEAR>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <BR CLEAR="type">

The line break tag breaks the current line of text. It's not necessary inside a PRE element. There is no </BR> tag. The CLEAR attribute type can be LEFT to break until there is nothing to the left, RIGHT for the right side, all for break until both sides are clear, and NONE for a normal break.


List Heading
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<LH> text </LH>

The list heading tag defines the heading for an ordered, unordered, or definition list. Other tags may be embedded in a list heading. It must come before any List Item (LI) or Definition Term (DT) tags in the list.


List Item


<LI> text </LI>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <LI SRC=
URL> text </LI>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <LI DINGBAT=
"entity-name"> text </LI>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <LI SKIP=
number> text </LI>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <LI TYPE=type> text </LI>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <LI VALUE=number> text </LI>

The list item tag defines one entry in an ordered, unordered, menu, or directory list. Other tags may be embedded in a list item.

(HTML 3.0 Only)The SRC attribute uses the image specified by the URL as the bullet for this item. The DINGBAT attribute identifies an iconic entity for the bullet. The SKIP attribute is used with ordered lists to skip forward in the count.

(HTML 3.2 Only) The TYPE attribute changes the bullet or numbering style for this item. type has the same values as it would in the OL or UL tag. The VALUE attribute resets the sequence number to number.


Listing


<LISTING> text </LISTING>

The listing tag introduces a program listing. Because of the way this tag handles embedded tags, it should no longer be used. PRE is a better choice.


Map
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<MAP NAME="name"> area tags </MAP>

The map tag defines a client side image map It gives a name to a collection of AREA tags that are superimposed over an inline image to connect user clicks with URLs.


Marquee
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:2.0+


<MARQUEE> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE ALIGN="align"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE BEHAVIOR="behavior"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE BGCOLOR="#rrggbb"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE BGCOLOR="colorname"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE DIRECTION="direction"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE HEIGHT=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE HEIGHT=n%> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE HSPACE=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE LOOP=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE SCROLLAMOUNT=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE SCROLLDELAY=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE WIDTH=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE VSPACE=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE WIDTH=n%> text </MARQUEE>

The marquee tag defines a moving piece of text, like a movie marquee.

The ALIGN attribute works like the ALIGN attribute in the IMG tag, setting the location of the surrounding text. "align" can be TOP, BOTTOM, or MIDDLE.

The BEHAVIOR attribute defines the way the text moves. SCROLL means that the text slides into the marquee box and out again, then repeats. SLIDE means that the text slides into the marquee box, stops when it is all in, then repeats. ALTERNATE means that the text bounces back and forth within the marquee box.

The BGCOLOR attribute specifies the colour to be used for the background. rrggbb is a six digit hexadecimal number with the first two digits specifying the red value, the middle two the green value, and the last two the blue value. Some sample colour values:

red
FF0000
green
00FF00
blue
0000FF
black
000000
white
FFFFFF
grey
888888
yellow
FFFF00
cyan
00FFFF

Colour names can be used for the BGCOLOR attribute. Valid colours are: Aqua, Black, Blue, Fuchsia, Gray, Green, Lime, Maroon, Navy, Olive, Purple, Red, Silver, Teal,Yellow, and White.

The DIRECTION attribute is LEFT or RIGHT and specifies the direction in which the text should move.

The HEIGHT and WIDTH attributes size the marquee box. If n is an absolute number, it is taken to mean pixels; if n is followed by a % sign it is taken to mean a percentage of the width or height (as appropriate) of the screen.

The HSPACE and VSPACE attributes specify a margin to the left and right, or above and below, the marquee box, in pixels.

The LOOP attribute will cause the marquee to scroll n times. LOOP="INFINITE" will cause the marquee to scroll as long as the page is open.

The SCROLLAMOUNT attribute specifies, the amount, in pixels, to move the scrolling text by each time it is drawn. The SCROLLDELAY attribute specifies the delay, in milliseconds, between drawings.


Math
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<MATH> math-content </MATH>

The math tag introduces a description of an equation or formula. math-content is not yet fully defined.


Menu List


<MENU> list entries </MENU>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <MENU COMPACT> list entries </MENU>

The menu list tag introduces a menu list, which is made up of List Item (LI) tags and does not include bullets or numbers before them. For a bulleted list use UL. For a numbered list use OL. For a list without bullets or numbers made up of short items that can be arranged into columns use DIR. The COMPACT attribute instructs the browser to reduce the space occupied by the list.

In HTML 3.0, the same effect can be achieved with <UL PLAIN>. The MENU tag will probably be obsolete some day, so use UL.


Meta

<META HTTP-EQUIV="HTTP header field name" CONTENT="field value">
<META HTTP-EQUIV=
"HTTP header field name" NAME="field name" CONTENT="field value">

The meta tag, which is only valid in a HEAD section, declares HTTP meta name/value pairs that are associated with the HTML document. These are used to extend the HTTP header information returned by the HTTP server. The support of the meta information is HTTP server specific. If a name attribute is not specified the HTTP-EQUIV attribute is used as the name. This tag can also be used to trigger client side behaviour.

Here are some values and what they are used for:

(Netscape Extension) (Microsoft Extension)HTTP-EQUIV="REFRESH"
The browser will reload the page every "n" seconds. "n" the number of seconds is specified in the CONTENT attribute. If the attribute URL is specified the browser will load the page specified in it after the "n" seconds. This is referred to as client pull refreshing.
(Netscape Extension) META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html" charset="charset"
This enables different international character sets to be selected. Netscape supports the following character sets: "us-ascii", "iso-8859-1", "x-mac-roman", "iso-8859-2", "x-mac-ce" "iso-2022-jp","x-sjis", "x-euc-jp", "euc-kr", "iso-2022-kr", "gb2312", "gb_2312-80" "x-euc-tw", "x-cns11643-1", "x-cns11643-2", "big5"

Multi Column Text
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:3.0+ MS Explorer:No Support


<MULTICOL attributes>

This tag is a container, used to split the display into columns without using frames or tables. The attributes of this tag are:

COLS="number"
The COLS attribute is mandatory and controls how many columns the display will be split into.
 
GUTTER="pixels"
The GUTTER attribute controls the pixels of space between columns. It defaults to a value of 10.
 
WIDTH="number"
The WIDTH attribute controls the width of an individual column.

No Break
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<NOBR> text </NOBR>

The no break tag defines a block of text which will have no line breaks except those explicitly requested with BR or suggested with WOBR.


No Frames
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+

<NOFRAMES> alternate HTML </NOFRAMES>

The NOFRAMES tag specifies HTML that can be used by browsers that do not support frames. Everything between the start and end tag is ignored by browsers that understand frames.


Note
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<NOTE> text </NOTE>
<NOTE CLASS=class> text </NOTE>
<NOTE SRC=
URL> text </NOTE>

The note tag defines text that forms a note. Many browsers display it in an indented block surrounded by blank lines with a graphic. The CLASS attribute specifies the type of note, such as a warning, caution, or note. The graphic used will be based on the CLASS. The SRC attribute can be used to override the graphic that would be used by default.


Object


<OBJECT> object-content </OBJECT>

The object tag will be included in a future HTML standard, code-named Cougar.


Ordered List


<OL> list entries </OL>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <OL COMPACT> list entries </OL>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <OL SEQNUM=
number> list entries </OL>
(HTML 3.0 Only) <OL CONTINUE>
list entries </OL>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <OL START=number> list entries </OL>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <OL TYPE=type> list entries </OL>

The ordered list tag introduces an ordered (numbered) list, which is made up of List Item (LI) tags. The COMPACT attribute instructs the browser to reduce the space occupied by the list. For a bulleted list use UL. For a list without bullets or numbers use MENU. For a list without bullets or numbers made up of short items that can be arranged into columns use DIR.

(HTML 3.0 Only) A list heading (LH) may be included before the first list item. The SEQNUM attribute allows the first list item to be number instead of the default 1. The CONTINUE attribute continues the numbering from the previous ordered list.

(HTML 3.2 Only) The START attribute allows the first list item to be number instead of the default 1. The TYPE attribute governs the way items are numbered:

A
A, B, C...
a
a, b, c...
I
I, II, III...
i
i, ii, iii...
1
1, 2, 3...

Overlay
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<OVERLAY attributes>

Valid only within a figure (FIG), the overlay element speeds up image rendering by drawing small changes over a base figure. The attributes are:

SRC="URL"
Here "URL" identifies the image source, typically a GIF or JPEG file.

X=number
This specifies the offset to the right within the base image from the top left corner, according to the UNITS attribute.

Y=number
This specifies the offset to the bottom within the base image from the top left corner, according to the UNITS attribute.

HEIGHT=number
This specifies the height of the image, according to the UNITS attribute.

WIDTH=number
This specifies the width of the image, according to the UNITS attribute.

UNITS=units
Here units is one of pixels, meaning the width and height are measured in pixels, or en, meaning the width and height are measured in en spaces.

IMAGEMAP="URL"
Points to a script that handles clicks and drags.


Paragraph


<P> text
<P> text </P>
(HTML 3.2 Only) <P ALIGN=alignment> text
(HTML 3.0 Only) <P NOWRAP> text

The paragraph tag starts a new paragraph, equivalent to two BR tags. The </P> tag is optional if the tag is only to insert space between two paragraphs, but vital when attributes (for example, ALIGN="center") are to apply to the whole paragraph. The ALIGN attribute can be one of LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER. The NOWRAP attribute will make it so lines are only broken at the <BR> tag.


Parameters
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<PARAM NAME="name" VALUE="value">

This tag, valid only within an APPLET element, passes parameters to the applet, which gets them with the getParameter() method.


Person
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<PERSON> text </PERSON>

The person tag is used around names of people mentioned in a document. It is typically displayed just like normal text, but is used by automatic indexers


Plain Text


<PLAINTEXT> text </PLAINTEXT>

The plain text tag defines text that should be shown in a fixed width font with the line breaks and other whitespace specified by the page author. There is no need to use <BR> tags to indicate line breaks -- line breaks in the source will be displayed by the browser. In addition multiple spaces will be displayed as multiple spaces. HTML tags are not rendered..


Preformatted Text


<PRE> text </PRE>
<PRE WIDTH=
width> text </PRE>

The preformatted text tag defines text that should be shown in a fixed width font with the line breaks and other whitespace specified by the page author. There is no need to use <BR> tags to indicate line breaks -- line breaks in the source will be displayed by the browser. In addition multiple spaces will be displayed as multiple spaces. Typically used for several lines of program code or for poetry. The width attribute specifies the maximum number of characters per line.


Quote
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<Q> text </Q>

The quote tag defines text that should be displayed as a short quote. For English language documents this means the text will be surrounded with double quote (") symbols. Quotes nested within quotes will typically be displayed surround by single quote (') symbols.


Range
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<RANGE FROM="from id" UNTIL="until id">

The range tag, which is valid only in the HEAD section, defines a range within the document. The FROM and UNTIL attributes refer to ID's of tags within the document. The SPOT tag can be used to specify a location in the document where there is no other tag.


Sample


<SAMP> text </SAMP>

The sample tag defines text that should be shown as literal characters in a fixed width font. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag. Many browsers use the same font for the KBD, SAMP, TT and CODE tags. For many lines of fixed width text, with the line breaks and other whitespace specified by the page author, use the PRE tag.


Script
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="language"><!-- script statements --></SCRIPT>

The script tag identifies script code. This can be code to be executed at this point of the document or may contain functions for use later in the document. Netscape Navigator supports JavaScript, and Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 supports both JavaScript and VBScript. The statements are usually but not required to be enclosed in the comment tag, so that browsers that do not support scripting do not render the code as text. Functions used by the document are usually defined in the HEAD tag so that they are loaded and available before the user could do anything that might call them.


Small Text
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<SMALL> text </SMALL>

The small text tag defines text that should be displayed in a smaller font than usual.


Spot
Support: HTML:3.0 Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:No Support


<SPOT ID="id">

The spot tag can be used to specify a location in the document where there is no tag.


Strikethrough


<STRIKE> text </STRIKE>

The strikethrough tag defines text that should be shown with a horizontal line through it. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag.


Strong


<STRONG> text </STRONG>

The strong tag defines text that should be strongly emphasized -- most browsers will display it in boldface. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag.


Subscript
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<SUB> text </SUB>

The subscript tag defines text that should be displayed in a smaller font than usual, lower on the line than usual.


Superscript
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<SUP> text </SUP>

The superscript tag defines text that should be displayed in a smaller font than usual, higher on the line than usual.


Table
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<TABLE attributes> table-content </TABLE>

A table consists of an optional caption (CAPTION) and one or more rows (TR.) The attributes are:

ALIGN="alignment"
This causes the table to be aligned in one of a variety of ways on the page. Here "alignment" should be one of
  • LEFT: To the left text margin
  • CENTER: In the centre of the page (Turns on NOFLOW.)
  • RIGHT: To the right text margin
  • (HTML 3.0 Only) BLEEDRIGHT: To the rightmost edge of the window
  • (HTML 3.0 Only) BLEEDLEFT: To the leftmost edge of the window
  • (HTML 3.0 Only) JUSTIFY: To both text margins (The table size is adjusted. Turns on NOFLOW.)
  • Note that this does not affect the alignment of the table entries.

    WIDTH=number
    The UNITS attribute is used to translate number.
    BORDER
    This attribute causes the table to be drawn with a border.
    BORDER=number
    This attribute draws the table with a border number pixels thick.
    CELLPADDING=number
    This separates the cell borders and the text with a padding of number pixels.
    CELLSPACING=number
    This separates cells with a gutter of number pixels.
    (Microsoft Extension)(Netscape Extension)BGCOLOR="#rrggbb"
    BGCOLOR="colorname"
    This attribute sets the background colour for the entire table.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLOR="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLOR="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border colour for the entire table.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLORLIGHT="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLORLIGHT="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border highlight colour for the entire table.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLORDARK="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLORDARK="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border shadow colour for the entire table.
    (Microsoft Extension)VALIGN="valign"
    This attribute sets the vertical alignment for the entire table. "valign"is TOP or BOTTOM.
    (HTML 3.0 Only) CLEAR=clear
    Here "clear" should be one of LEFT, RIGHT, or ALL and specifies which margin should be clear.
    (HTML 3.0 Only) NOFLOW
    This attribute prevents text flow around the table and is equivalent to setting the CLEAR attribute on the element after the table.
    (HTML 3.0 Only) COLSPEC=colspec
    Here colspec is a list of column alignments and widths, separated by spaces. There should be one entry for each column in the table, and each should be an optional capital letter for alignment (one of L (left,) R (right,) C (centre,) J (justify,) or D (decimal)) followed immediately by a number describing the width.
    (HTML 3.0 Only) UNITS=units
    This makes sense only if the COLSPEC or WIDTH attributes are being used and specifies the units to be used for the column or table widths. units should be one of
  • en: widths are in en spaces, proportional to font size
  • relative: column widths are percentage of entire table width, table width is percentage of entire window width
  • pixels: widths are in pixels
  • (HTML 3.0 Only) DP="character"
    Here "character" is the character (the default is ".") to be used in aligning for decimal point alignment.
    (HTML 3.0 Only) NOWRAP
    This attribute prevents word wrap within table entries.

    In the attributes above that refer to it, rrggbb is a six digit hexadecimal number with the first two digits specifying the red value, the middle two the green value, and the last two the blue value. Some sample colour values:

    red
    FF0000
    green
    00FF00
    blue
    0000FF
    black
    000000
    white
    FFFFFF
    grey
    888888
    yellow
    FFFF00
    cyan
    00FFFF

    Microsoft Explorer supports the use of colour names in the BGCOLOR, BORDERCOLOR, BORDERCOLORLIGHT, and BORDERCOLORDARK attributes. Valid colours are: Aqua, Black, Blue, Fuchsia, Gray, Green, Lime, Maroon, Navy, Olive, Purple, Red, Silver, Teal,Yellow, and White.


    Table Body
    Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:3.0+


    <TBODY> table body </TBODY>

    The TBODY tag is used to group together a number of rows within a table, for assigning ID or STYLE values.

    CLASS=type
    This attribute indicates the class that the element belongs too.
    ID=value
    This attribute specifies a unique value for the element over the docuement.
    STYLE=css1 properties
    This attribute specifies the style information.



    Table Column
    Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:3.0+


    <COL> content </COL>
    <COL ALIGN=alignment> content </COL>
    <COL SPAN=
    number> content </COL>

    The <COL> tag sets the properties of one table column at a time. Do not use this tag with a COLGROUP element.

    The ALIGN attribute specifies the text alignment in the cells within the colums. The values for "alignment" are LEFT, MIDDLE and RIGHT and the default is MIDDLE.


    Table Column Group
    Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:3.0+


    <COLGROUP> column data </COLGROUP>
    <COLGROUP ALIGN
    ="align"> column data </COLGROUP>
    <COLGROUP VALIGN=
    "valign"> column data </COLGROUP>
    <COLGROUP HALIGN=
    "halign"> column data </COLGROUP>
    <COLGROUP WIDTH=
    "width"> column data </COLGROUP>
    <COLGROUP SPAN=
    "number"> column data </COLGROUP>

    The COLGROUP tag sets the properties of one or more table columns.

    The HALIGN attribute specifies the horizontal alignment of text in the cells for the column group.. The values are LEFT, RIGHT and CENTER (the default.) The VALIGN attribute sets the vertical alignment for the column. The values are TOP, MIDDLE (the default,) and BOTTOM. The SPAN attribute sets the number of consecutive columns for the group. The WIDTH attribute specifies the width of each column in the column group.


    Table Data
    Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


    <TD attributes>

    Valid only in a TR, the table data tag defines a table cell. The attributes are:

    COLSPAN="number"
    the number of columns this cell occupies.
    ROWSPAN="number"
    the number of rows this cell occupies.
    NOWRAP
    This attribute prevents word wrap within the cell.
    ALIGN="align"
    governs the alignment of the text within the table cell. "align" can be LEFT, RIGHT or CENTER.
    VALIGN="align"
    governs the alignment of the text within the table cell. "align" can be TOP, MIDDLE, BOTTOM, or BASELINE.
    (Microsoft Extension)(Netscape Extension)BGCOLOR="#rrggbb"
    BGCOLOR="colorname"
    This attribute sets the background colour for the table cell.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLOR="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLOR="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border colour for the table cell.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLORLIGHT="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLORLIGHT="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border highlight colour for the table cell.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLORDARK="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLORDARK="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border shadow colour for the table cell.

    In the attributes above that refer to it, rrggbb is a six digit hexadecimal number with the first two digits specifying the red value, the middle two the green value, and the last two the blue value. Some sample colour values:

    red
    FF0000
    green
    00FF00
    blue
    0000FF
    black
    000000
    white
    FFFFFF
    grey
    888888
    yellow
    FFFF00
    cyan
    00FFFF

    Microsoft Explorer supports the use of colour names in the BGCOLOR, BORDERCOLOR, BORDERCOLORLIGHT, and BORDERCOLORDARK attributes. Valid colours are: Aqua, Black, Blue, Fuchsia, Gray, Green, Lime, Maroon, Navy, Olive, Purple, Red, Silver, Teal,Yellow, and White.


    Table Footer
    Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:3.0+

    <TFOOT>

    Defines the table footer. The footer tag is used to group all footers.

    CLASS=type
    This attribute indicates the class that the element belongs too.
    ID=value
    This attribute specifies a unique value for the element over the document.
    STYLE=css1 properties
    This attribute specifies style the information

    Table Head
    Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:3.0+


    <THEAD>

    The THEAD tag defines the table heading. The THEAD tag is used to group all headers together.

    ALIGN=left, center, right, justify
    Specifies the alignment of text in the heading, the default is center.
    CLASS=type
    This attribute indicates the class that the element belongs too.
    ID=value
    This attribute specifies a unique value for the element over the document.
    STYLE=css1 properties
    This attribute specifies style the information
    VALIGN=middle/top/bottom
    This attribute specifies the verticle alignment of text in the heading. The default is middle.

    Table Header
    Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


    <TH attributes>

    Valid only in a TR, the table header tag defines a header cell. The attributes are:

    COLSPAN="number"
    the number of columns this header occupies.
    ROWSPAN="number"
    the number of rows this header occupies.
    NOWRAP
    This attribute prevents word wrap within the cell.
    ALIGN="align"
    governs the alignment of the text within the table cell. "align" can be LEFT, RIGHT or CENTER. Table Header cells default to centred.
    VALIGN="align"
    governs the alignment of the text within the table cell. "align" can be TOP, MIDDLE, BOTTOM, or BASELINE.
    (Microsoft Extension)(Netscape Extension)BGCOLOR="#rrggbb"
    BGCOLOR="colorname"
    This attribute sets the background colour for the header cell.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLOR="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLOR="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border colour for the header cell.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLORLIGHT="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLORLIGHT="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border highlight colour for the header cell.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLORDARK="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLORDARK="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border shadow colour for the header cell.

    In the attributes above that refer to it, rrggbb is a six digit hexadecimal number with the first two digits specifying the red value, the middle two the green value, and the last two the blue value. Some sample colour values:

    red
    FF0000
    green
    00FF00
    blue
    0000FF
    black
    000000
    white
    FFFFFF
    grey
    888888
    yellow
    FFFF00
    cyan
    00FFFF

    Microsoft Explorer supports the use of colour names in the BGCOLOR, BORDERCOLOR, BORDERCOLORLIGHT, and BORDERCOLORDARK attributes. Valid colours are: Aqua, Black, Blue, Fuchsia, Gray, Green, Lime, Maroon, Navy, Olive, Purple, Red, Silver, Teal, Yellow, and White.


    Table Row
    Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


    <TR attributes>

    Valid only in a TABLE, the table row tag defines a row of cells that are defined with TH and TD tags. The attributes are:

    ALIGN="align"
    governs the alignment of the text within the table cell. "align" can be LEFT, RIGHT or CENTER.
    VALIGN="align"
    governs the alignment of the text within the table cell. "align" can be TOP, MIDDLE, BOTTOM, or BASELINE.
    (Microsoft Extension)(Netscape Extension)BGCOLOR="#rrggbb"
    BGCOLOR="colorname"
    This attribute sets the background colour for the table row.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLOR="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLOR="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border colour for the table row.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLORLIGHT="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLORLIGHT="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border highlight colour for the table row.
    (Microsoft Extension)BORDERCOLORDARK="#rrggbb"
    BORDERCOLORDARK="colorname"
    This attribute sets the border shadow colour for the table row.
    (HTML 3.0 Only) CLASS="class"
    class is one of Header, Body, or Footer and allows the browser to arrange for header or footer rows to be displayed as the user scrolls through the document.

    Valid only in a TABLE, the table row tag defines a row of cells that are defined with TH and TD tags. The class attribute can be set to one of Header, Body, or Footer to arrange for header or footer rows to be displayed as the user scrolls through the document.

    (Microsoft Extension)The ALIGN attribute governs the alignment of the cells within the table rows. "align" can be LEFT or RIGHT. If ALIGN is specified for any cell in the row, the cell alignment overrides the row alignment.


    Teletype


    <TT> text </TT>

    The teletype tag defines text that should be shown in a fixed width font. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag. Many browsers use the same font for the KBD, SAMP, TT and CODE tags. For many lines of fixed width text, with the line breaks and other whitespace specified by the page author, use the PRE tag.


    Title

    <TITLE> title-text </TITLE>

    The title tag, which is only valid in a HEAD section, defines the title of an HTML document. A title should be chosen that makes sense with no context; for example Introduction is a poor title since it contains no indication of the subject matter it discusses. Netscape displays document titles in the application's title bar and in bookmark lists.


    Underlined


    <U> text </U>

    The underlined tag defines text that should be shown with a line underneath it. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag. Many browsers, including some versions of Netscape, do not support this tag.


    Unordered List


    <UL> list entries </UL>
    <UL COMPACT>
    list entries </UL>
    (HTML 3.0 Only) <UL SRC=
    "URL" > list entries </UL>
    (HTML 3.0 Only) <UL DINGBAT=
    "entity-name" > list entries </UL>
    (HTML 3.0 Only) <UL PLAIN>
    (HTML 3.0 Only) <UL WRAP=
    type>
    (HTML 3.2 Only) <UL TYPE=type > list entries </UL>

    The unordered list tag introduces an unordered (bulleted) list, which is made up of List Item (LI) tags. The COMPACT attribute instructs the browser to reduce the space occupied by the list. For a numbered list use OL. For a list without bullets or numbers use MENU. For a list without bullets or numbers made up of short items that can be arranged into columns use DIR.

    (HTML 3.0 Only) A list heading (LH) may be included before the first list item. The SRC attribute identifies a graphic image to be used as a bullet, while the DINGBAT attribute identifies an iconic entity for the bullet. The PLAIN attribute specifies not to use a bullet on each item. The WRAP attribute is either VERT or HORIZ, and indicates multiple columns of data. VERT indicates that the data is to go down the page and then wrap to the next column, and HORIZ indicates that the data is to wrap across each row.

    (HTML 3.2 Only) The TYPE attribute specifies the bullet type; type can be DISC, CIRCLE, or SQUARE.


    Variable


    <VAR> text </VAR>

    The variable tag defines text that represents a variable-- most browsers will display it in italics. It can be nested with other idiomatic or typographic tags but some browsers will respect only the innermost tag.


    White Space
    Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:3.0+ MS Explorer:No Support


    <SPACER attributes>

    The SPACER tag creates an area of white space within the document. The attributes for this tag are:

    TYPE=type
    The TYPE attribute has three possible values: horizontal (the default,) vertical, and block.
    SIZE=pixels
    The SIZE attribute only applies when the spacer has a type of horizontal or vertical. Then this attribute controls the absolute width or height in pixels of the spacing added
    WIDTH=pixels
    The WIDTH attribute only applies when the spacer is of type block. Then this attribute controls the absolute width in pixels of the spacing rectangle added
    HEIGHT=pixels
    The HEIGHT attribute only applies when the spacer is of type block. Then this attribute controls the absolute height in pixels of the spacing rectangle added
    ALIGN=alignment
    The ALIGN attribute only applies when the spacer is of type block. Then this attribute controls the alignment of the spacing rectangle in exactly the same way it would control the alignment of an IMG tag. "alignment" should be one of LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, TEXTTOP, MIDDLE, ABSMIDDLE, BASELINE, BOTTOM, or ABSBOTTOM.

    Word Break
    Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


    <WBR>

    The word break tag identifies a place where a word can be broken, or where a line can be broken within a NOBR block.




    HTML Glossary

    ADPCM
    A compression technique for sound files.

    AIFF
    A popular Mac format for sound files.

    Anchor
    The anchor tag (<A>) is used to define both anchors and links. An anchor is a named place in a document that other documents can form a link to.

    ANSI
    American National Standards Institute, an organization that sets many standards for the computer industry.

    ASCII
    American Standard Code for Information Interchange, the mapping of ordinary letters and numbers to standard numerical representations. Often used to refer to plain text that does not contain word-processing codes.

    Attribute
    A setting for a tag, that affects the way the tag is displayed.

    AU
    A popular Unix format for sound files.

    AVI
    Audio Video Interleave, a popular format for video files.

    Bandwidth
    The share of a communications link occupied by a particular transfer. Large image or sound files consume a lot of bandwidth.

    BMP
    Bitmap, a popular Windows format for image files.

    Boolean
    Refers to something that can be True or False. A checkbox is a good way for a form to get a true or false answer from a user.

    Browser
    A program used to access and display web pages. Graphical browsers can display images and many different text fonts; non-graphical browsers cannot.

    CGI
    Common Gateway Interface, a way to allow users to provide information to scripts attached to web pages, usually through forms
    . For more information see the CGI 1.1 standard documentation.
    Cyberspace
    The imaginary space users of the web move around in. A metaphor that many people take almost literally.

    Decimal Point alignment
    A form of alignment for columns of numbers so that all of the decimal points line up under each other.

    Domain Name
    The name of an Internet site, for example www.nortel.com or www.cdilearn.com.

    en Space
    A space as wide as half the current point size (typically as wide as the letter n in many fonts.) The related em space is as wide as the current point size (as wide as m in many fonts.) The en dash is a dash as wide as an en space, and an em dash is a dash as wide as an em space. A no break space is as wide as a regular space, but browsers will not break the line at a no break space even if they would at a regular space.

    Entity
    A special character such as & that needs to be entered with an escape sequence. An iconic entity is a small icon that is useful in lists and headings, such as a folder icon to represent a directory. Lists are available of iconic, character, and mathematical entities.

    Fixed Width Text
    Also called monospaced text, fixed width text is set in a font in which every character occupies the same width. In contrh[Tast, proportional width fonts use more space for a w or m than an i or l. Many authors used fixed width fonts to indicate material a user should type letter-for-letter.

    Font
    A font, strictly speaking, is a set of characters that all belong to the same size and style of a typeface. For example, Courier is a typeface, and 11 point italic Courier is a font; 12 point bold Courier is a different font. In practice most people use the word font to mean typeface, saying that Courier is a font.

    Forms
    The mechanism by which web pages become interactive, allowing users to supply input to CGI scripts.

    FTP
    File Transfer Protocol, a way to exchange files with other sites on the Internet.

    GIF
    Graphics Interchange Format, a popular Windows format for image files.

    Gopher
    A protocol that is older than HTTP and serves a similar purpose, allowing users to tunnel through cyberspace in search of information.

    Graphic
    A picture or illustration, also called image. Formats include GIF, JPEG, BMP, PCX, and TIFF.

    HTML
    HyperText Markup Language, the language in which web pages are written.

    HTTP
    HyperText Transfer Protocol, the conventions used by web browsers and servers to transfer web pages.

    Hypermedia
    A combination of hypertext and multimedia that allows users to move in a non-linear fashion through text, images, sounds, and other information.

    Hypertext
    A collection of documents joined by links so that users can read it in a variety of different orders.

    Icon
    A small graphic that can be used as a bullet character or mixed with text.

    IETF
    Internet Engineering Task Force, the volunteer group that defines most Internet standards.

    Image
    A picture or illustration, also called graphic. Formats include GIF, JPEG, BMP, PCX, and TIFF. An inline image is mixed with text and displayed surrounded by text.

    Image File
    A file containing an image.

    Image Map
    An image with a number of different links associated with it. Clicks on different portions of the image go to different links. All browsers that can display images support server-side image maps; newer browsers also support client-side image maps, which resolve more quickly and can provide more feedback to the user.

    Indented
    Text whose left margin is to the right of the usual text margin.

    Indexers
    Programs that read pages throughout the web and add a description of their contents to a database that can be searched by users looking for specific information.

    ISO
    International Standards Association, an organization that sets standards used around the world, such as standard two letter abbreviations for country names.

    JPEG
    Joint Photographic Experts Group, a popular cross-platform format for image files.

    LaTeX
    A series of macros for the text description language TeX, used to create sophisticated typesetting effects. It is especially well suited to equations, formulas, and long academic papers with many footnotes and references and is generally available on Unix systems. The MATH element of HTML draws heavily on LaTeX. There are a number of FAQs available on TeX and LaTeX.

    Link
    The anchor tag (<A>) is used to define both anchors and links. A link is a directive to a browser: when a user selects a link a new page is loaded. Some people call a link a hotlink or hyperlink. An external link leads to a page other than the current one; an internal link leads elsewhere on the current page. Some people refer to relative and absolute links; these adjectives are more properly applied to a URL.

    Literal
    Characters that should be displayed as they were typed, without any translation of codes.

    Media Type
    As explained in RFC 1590, what used to be called "MIME types" or "Mime Content Types" are now called "Media Types." They define the content of a file or attachment: for example the media type "video/mpeg" indicates that a file is an MPEG video. The type "text/html; version=3.0" indicates that a file contains HTML source that relies on HTML 3.0 -- files for HTML 2.0 have a media type of "text/html" with no version number.

    MIDI
    Musical Instrument Digital Interface, a popular cross-platform format for sound files.

    MIME Content Type
    A description of the contents of a file or attachment, now called Media Type.

    Mnemonic
    A series of letters designed to aid the remembrance of a code or sequence. For example amp is a mnemonic for "ampersand", the & symbol.

    MPEG
    Moving Pictures Expert Group, a popular cross-platform format for sound and video files.

    Multimedia
    The combination of several different communications techniques: for example sound, written text, still pictures, and moving pictures.

    Nested
    An element that is entirely contained within another element. For example, the phrase "the quick brown fox" contains a bold element (the word "quick") nested within an italic element (the entire phrase.) Some browsers will display the word "quick" only as bold, others will display it as both bold and italic.

    Netscape Extensions
    A group of extra features that are supported by the Netscape browser. These features are not part of HTML 2.0 or 3.0 and are not usually supported by other browsers.

    PCX
    A popular Windows format for image files.

    Pixel
    The smallest area that can be displayed on a given screen. Each pixel can be a different colour. Screen resolutions are expressed in pixels, for example 800 pixels by 600 pixels.

    Player
    An application used to display an sound or video format not supported by a particular browser. One of the many helper applications browsers such as Netscape use to support a variety of formats.

    Point
    A unit of font size.

    Pop-Up Window
    A small window that pops up over the one being displayed, to show a definition or footnote, then disappears.

    Render
    To render a page is to translate the codes and directives, embed any inline images, and highlight links and other special areas.

    Server
    A program running on an Internet site that makes the web pages at that site available to browsers throughout the Internet.

    SGML
    Standard Generalized Markup Language. HTML is a derivative of SGML.

    Site
    Some people use the word site to refer to an Internet site, which has a domain name, while others refer to a web site, a collection of web pages joined byh[T links and all located at the same Internet site.

    SND
    An extension used for a variety of different sound file formats.

    Sound
    Popular sound file formats include AU, WAV, SND, MPEG, MIDI, AIFF, ADPCM

    Tags
    Tags are used to define elements in HTML. Most tags have both a start tag, such as <LI> and a corresponding end tag, such as</LI>. Typographic tags like <B> for "bold" or <I> for "italic" describe the appearance of the text; idiomatic tags like <EM> for "emphasize" or <STRONG> for "strongly emphasize" describe the reason for the appearance change. Different browsers may choose different appearances for the same idiomatic tag.

    TIFF
    Tagged Image File Format, a popular Mac format for image files.

    UNIX
    An operating system that many computers on the Internet, including many web servers use.

    URL
    Uniform Resource Locator, a description of the location of a link or image file. It specifies the protocol (http:// for a web page,) site name, path and file name to the resource.

    Viewer
    An application used to display an image format not supported by a particular browser. One of the many helper applications browsers such as Netscape use to support a variety of formats.

    Video
    A moving picture, accompanied by sound.

    VRML
    Virtual Reality Markup Language, a way to describe "worlds" that are displayed in three dimensions for the user to "walk through" or "fly over." For more information, see the VRML FAQ.

    W3
    The name of the consortium that is steering standards development for the World Wide Web.

    WAV
    A popular Windows format for sound files.

    Whitespace
    A character that leaves some empty space on the screen: a space, tab, or carriage-return.

    WYSIWYG
    What You See Is What You Get. A feature sorely lacking in HTML editors.


    HTML Support

    Not all Web browsers support all HTML tags. The World Wide Web Consortium develops and maintains standards for HTML and related technologies. Major vendors, including Netscape and Microsoft, have also developed a number of extensions to the HTML standards. In this web site, we have attempted to rigorously categorise each HTML tag and each of its attributes (if applicable) according to which standards it conforms to, and according to which browsers support it. This page is a key to the graphical indicators we use throughout the site to indicate support for the various tags and their attributes.


    Support for tags

    Throughout this site we use the following graphical table at the beginning of a tag description to indicate support for the tag. If the table is missing, it means that the tag is defined in the HTML 2.0 standard and is supported by all graphical browsers including Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and Mosaic.

    Support:  HTML:2.0, 3.0, 3.2  Netscape:1.1+  MS Explorer:2.0+
    Within the table, you can click on Support to get back to this page. The icons are used as follows:

     HTML: indicates standards defined by the World Wide Web Consortium.

     Netscape: indicates support in Netscape's Navigator web browser.

     MS Explorer: indicates support in Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser.

    The numbers after each icon indicate the versions (of the standards or of the browsers) that support the tag. A plus sign ( + ) after a number means that version and all versions above. The example above would indicate a tag that is defined in HTML standards 2.0, 3.0, and 3.2; that is supported by Netscape Navigator versions 1.1 and above; and that is supported by Microsoft Internet Explorer versions 2.0 and above.

    Support for attributes

    Some tags have attributes, and sometimes a browser will support a tag but will not support all the attributes. When these exceptions arise, we use the following icons on the specific attributes in question:

    (HTML 3.0 Only) identifies attributes in the now-defunct HTML 3.0 specification that are not part of any official specification.. Many of these were supported by browsers like Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Explorer.

    (HTML 3.2 Only) identifies attributes in the May 1996 HTML 3.2 specification. These are almost all supported by Netscape Navigator 2.0 or higher and Microsoft Explorer 2.0 or higher.

    (Netscape Extension) identifies attributes supported by Netscape Navigator 2.0 that are not in any official HTML specification. Some attributes identified with this icon were also supported by earlier versions.

    (Microsoft Extension)identifies attributes supported by Microsoft Explorer 2.0 that are not in any official HTML specification. Some attributes identified with this icon were also supported by version 1.0.

    (Microsoft Extension 3.0) identifies attributes supported by Microsoft Explorer 3.0 that are not in any official HTML specification.

    Browsers are supposed to ignore tags and attributes they do not know. Some, however, do not. For example some versions of Mosaic do not display the text and images inside a <TABLE> tag at all, though if they ignored <TABLE>, <TR>, and <TD> the text inside should come through. Use caution when using a tag that is not supported by all browsers.